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He argued that that the burden of obtaining and defending them would outweigh the potential benefits.During the late 1870s, however, public opinion shifted to favor the idea of a colonial empire.William II, German Emperor, was so frustrated by the defeat of his European generals that he declared that Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck, the German general in charge in East Africa, should be the only German officer allowed to lead his soldiers in a victory parade through the Brandenburg Gate.Vorbeck was the only undefeated German general of the war, and the only one to set foot in British territory.Namibia was granted to South Africa as a League of Nations mandate.Western Samoa was run as a class C League of Nations mandate by New Zealand and Rabaul along the same lines by Australia. Hughes, the Australian Prime Minister, who was astounded to find that the big four planned to give German New Guinea to Japan.Germany did not attempt to re-mold its colonial subjects in the German image in the way that the French and the British tried to mold their subjects in their image.While the French and the English instituted policies that spread their languages and culture, Germany restricted use of German to a small number of elite colonial subjects.
Initially, Bismarck—whose Prussian heritage had always regarded Europe as the space in which German imperialist ambition found expression—opposed the idea of seeking colonies.
Germany did not actually profit from colonialism, since the expenses incurred in administration were greater than revenues generated.
Colonies were regarded as overspill for German settlers, rather than as territories to be developed and eventually granted autonomy, or independence.
This placing of responsibility on white-settler dominions was at the time perceived to be the cheapest option for the British government, although it did have the bizarre result of British colonies having their own colonies. Hughes insisted that New Guinea would stay in Australian hands, with the troops there defending it by force if necessary.
Hughes achievement in preventing Japan occupying New Guinea was of vital importance in World War II.
'This way you can save both trees and arguments,' she adds.